From Praguebedandbreakfast dot com:
Jan Hus, who attended (Prague's) Charles University in the late 1380s, rallied popular support for the Church-reform movement; when he was burned at the stake in 1415, the rabble was roused enough to hurl various Catholic officials from the upper stories of Prague's New Town Hall, introducing the word 'defenestration' (literally, to toss someone out a window) into the popular political lexicon. While the 1526 ascent of the Catholic Hapsburg family to power in the region cooled things off briefly, a second round of defenestrations in 1618 made it clear that the matter was not quite settled.
In fact, the insurrection catalyzed the Thirty Years War, which devastated much of Europe; a quarter of Bohemia perished. Their defeat slammed the door on Czech independence for almost three centuries. The Czech national spirit was not so easily crushed, however, and by the 19th century, Prague which had been unified in 1784 by imperial decree had become the centre of the so-called Czech National Revival. Czech literature, architecture and journalism were celebrated, even as Czechs were denied participation in the political process.